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Sejarah Parti Islam Semalaysia (PAS)

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SEJARAH PARTI ISLAM SEMALAYSIA (PAS)

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Kejayaan cemerlang PAS dalam pilihan raya umum ke-12 pada 2008 telah meletakkan PAS sebagai sebuah parti pembangkang utama yang dilihat oleh rakyat berupaya mengambil alih pemerintahan negara. Semenjak 1990, PAS telah melangkah maju daripada sebuah parti pembangkang yang dianggap ‘ekstrem’ menjadi sebuah parti pemerintah yang moderat dalam melaksanakan cita-cita Islamnya bermula di Kelantan semenjak 1990, kemudian ke Terengganu pada 1999 hingga 2004, dan kini PAS mendapat kepercayaan rakyat di Kedah, Perak dan Selangor. Di Parlimen juga, PAS telah bangkit dan menguasai 10 peratus daripada kerusi Parlimen atau 25 peratus daripada keseluruhan kerusi pembangkang. Perkembangan ini meletakkan PAS dalam perhatian peminat politik, pengkaji dan juga penyelidik.


Sebenarnya, kemunculan PAS dalam sejarah politik tanah air telah bermula semenjak 23 Ogos 1951 apabila para ulamak yang bersidang di Kuala Lumpur bersetuju menubuhkan sebuah persatuan yang dinamakan Persatuan Ulamak Se-Malaya. Nama persatuan ini kemudiannya diubah menjadi Persatuan Islam Se-Malaya (PAS) pada 24 November 1951, dalam satu
persidangan ulamak Malaya di Bagan Tuan Kecil (Butterworth), Seberang Prai. Itulah sekelumit permulaan sejarah PAS yang diasaskan oleh para ulamak yang kemudiannya berkembang menjadi sebuah pertubuhan politico-dakwah yang penting di negara ini. Penglibatan dan sumbangan PAS dala politik negara bermula sebaik sahaja ia ditubuhkan walaupun ramai pengkaji mengatakan PAS hanya menyertai politik menjelang pilihan raya 1955.


Kemunculan PAS ini dikatakan hasil daripada silang pengaruh yang berlaku antara beberapa gerakan Islam yang lebih awal seperti Ikhwanul Muslimun di Mesir, Masyumi di Indonesia dan Jamaat Islami di Pakistan. Ketiga-tiga pengaruh ini telah menyerap masuk ke Tanah Melayu melalui para ulamak yang belajar di Mesir, Mekah, India dan Indonesia. Ksedaran yang awal ialah para ulamak atau umat Islam memerlukan sebuah pertubuhan atau badan yang boleh mewakili mereka dalam semua aspek kehidupan terutama dalam keadaan Tanah Melayu sedang dijajah oleh British ketika itu. Longgokan ksedaran ini kemudiannya menghasilkan Majlis Tertinggi Agama Malaya (MATA) pada 1947 diikuti oleh Hizbul Muslimin pada 1948 kesan daripada usaha gigih Dr Burhanuddin al-Helmy dan Ustaz Abu Bakar al-Baqir. Walau bagaimanapun, gerakan Islam yang berpusat di Gunung Semanggol ini terkubur ekoran penguatkuasaan Ordinan Darurat pada Jun 1948.


Para ulamak mengambil beberapa sikap selepas tragedi darurat ini. Ada yang ’tawakuf’ daripada politik kepartian tetapi menggerakkan kesedaran rakyat melalui institusi pendidikan atau media massa. Dalam fraksi yang lain, para ulamak telah mengambil sikap untuk menyertai parti nasionalis Umno bagi membolehkan isu-isu umat Islam diperkatakan. Beberapa tokoh Hizbul Muslimin seperti Tuan Haji Ahmad Fuad Hassan, seorang lepasan Maahad Il Ihya Assyariff, Gunung Semanggol telah menyertai Umno pada 1950 dan dilantik mengetuai Bahagian Agama dan Pelajaran Umno. Bahagian ini kemudiannya mengaturkan beberapa persidangan untuk membolehkan ulamak menubuhkankan persatuan. Dalam tulisannya, ”Ulamak Malaya Belum Bersatu dan Belum Punya Persatuan”, Haji Ahmad Fuad menyifatkan kedudukan ulamak ketika itu umpama sampah yang tidak dihargai kerana tiada kekuatan. Lebih-lebih lagi ketika itu ulamak telah muak dengan sikap Umno yang mengabaikan isu pemurtadan Natrah, pengajuran judi loteri, fun fair, kaberat dan lain-lain. Dalam satu persidangan ulamak yang dipimpin oleh Sheikh Abdullah Fahim, Mufti Pulau Pinang di Seberang Perai pada 1951, mereka telah mengeluarkan fatwa mengharamkan judi loteri anjuran Umno.


Dalam konflik pelbagai yang dihadapi oleh para ulamak dan situasi politik semasa yang masih tidak menuju kepada jalan Allah itu, maka para ulamak membuat pendirian untuk menubuhkan PAS. Haji Ahmad Badawi, seorang ulamak di Seberang Perai telah mengeluarkan satu manifesto yang dinamakan ’Manifesto al-Badawi’ dengan tema ”Ulamak ke Jalan Allah” bagi menyambut persidangan untuk menubuhkan PAS pada 24 November 1951. Mereka memutuskan supaya PAS menjadi sebuah pertubuhan politik Islam yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan melalui landasan demokrasi ke arah membentuk sebuah negara yang diredhai Alah. Para ulamak menolak bentukbentuk perjuangan yang diasaskan berdasarkan ideologi ciptaan manusia yang dibawa masuk oleh penjajah.


Semenjak itulah, PAS muncul sebagai sebuah pertubuhan politik Islam yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan negara, kemudian menyertai pilihan raya demi pilihan raya. PAS juga menggunakan pelbagai saluran untuk menyampaikan mesej dakwahnya termasuk membentuk beberapa kerjasama politik dengan orang bukan Islam semenjak 1953. Di bawah kepemimpin Tuan Guru Haji Ahmad Fuad Hassan dan Dr Haji Abbas Alias, PAS bercakap soal kemerdekaan yang boleh ditegakkan hukum Islam. PAS menolak kerakyatan jus soli yang merugikan peribumi dan PAS mendesak supaya Islam dijadikan dasar negara yang merdeka. Apabila Dr Burhanuddin al-Helmy mengambil alih kepemimpinan PAS pada akhir 1956, PAS mula memperincikan sikapnya terhadap kemerdekaan yang hendak dicapai yang dianggap ’masih kosong’ dari
matlamat sebenar kerana mengabaikan kebangsaan Melayu dan ketuanan Islam1. Hal ini tergambar daripada hasrat Dr Burhanuddin,


”Dalam perjuangan kita (PAS) bagi mencapai kemerdekaan, kita telah dan terusmenerus memperjuangkan Melayu itu sebagai kebangsaan bagi negara Tanah Melayu ini dengan bertapak di atas asas ideologi Islam yang maha suci”2.


Penyertaan PAS dalam pilihan raya 1959 telah memberikan kejayaan besar apabila Terengganu dan Kelantan berjaya dikuasai. PAS membentuk kerajaan yang dipimpin oleh Mohd Daud Abdul Samad di Terengganu dan Ustaz Ishak Lotfi Omar di Kelantan sebagai Menteri Besar. PAS memulakan langkah sebagai kerajaan di dua negeri Pantai Timur untuk menterjemahkan ideologi perjuangannya yang berasaskan al-Quran dan Sunnah. Namun begitu, kerajaan PAS di Terengganu telah dijatuhkan pada Oktober 1961 hasil permainan politik kotor Perikatan. Di Kelantan, PAS berjaya bertahan sehingga BN mendaruratkan Kelantan pada akhir 1977. Dalam konteks ini, PAS-lah satu-satunya pembangkang yang diberikan kepercayaan oleh rakyat untuk memerintah kerajaan negeri di negara ini.


Selepas kejatuhan Terengganu pada hujung 1961, PAS mulai menerima tekanan-tekanan politik seperti penyalahgunaan ISA, penahanan Dr Burhanuddin al-Helmy diikuti oleh sekatan politik, keganasan Pemuda Tahan Lasak Umno dan beberapa siri pembunuhan politik. Perjuangan PAS untuk memartabatkan kebangsaan Melayu Raya berasaskan Islam telah dijadikan kambing hitam dalam Konfrantasi Indonesia pada 1963. PAS menolak pembentukan Malaysia kerana mahukan sebuah negara Melayu yang lebih besar meliputi seluruh alam Melayu dibentuk. Dalam masa yang sama Umno mencanangkan isu-isu perkauman yang akhirnya membawa kepada beberapa siri perbalahan kaum di Pulau Pinang, Perak dan Singapura antara 1964 hingga 1969, dan kemuncaknnya tercetus Tragedi 13 Mei 1969 yang mengubah landskap politik negara. Selepas tragedi ini, Datuk Mohd Asri Muda yang memangku jawatan Yang Dipertua Agung PAS semenjak 1965 telah dilantik sebagai Yang Dipertua Agung PAS pada 1971.


PAS memasuki era baru dalam politik negara apabila PAS mula meneroka kerjasama dengan Umno bagi menjamin kestabilan politik negara, mengekalkan ketuanan Melayu dan menyerapkan Islam dalam pemerintahan. PAS menyertai beberapa parti lain telah membentuk Kerajaan Campuran PAS-Perikatan pada 1973, kemudian sama-sama mengasaskan Barisan Nasional (BN) pada 1974. BN mencapai kejayaan besar dalam pilihan raya 1974 dan PAS sendiri telah berjaya menembusi ruang-ruang yang baru sehingga membolehkan Islam di sampaikan ke corong telinga rakyat dengan lebih berkesan. Walau bagaimanapun, keterbukaan PAS dalam membentuk kestabilan politik negara telah disalahgunakan oleh musuh-musuh politiknya dengan melaga-lagakan pimpinan PAS sehingga terjadi krisis politik Kelantan pada 1977. Akibatnya, PAS telah menolak Akta Darurat (Kelantan) 1977 yang menyebabkan PAS bukan sahaja disingkirkan dari BN, tetapi turut kehilangan Kelantan.


Setelah melalui tempoh yang mencabar antara 1978 hingga 1982 di mana PAS terpaksa berhadapan dengan perpecahan, kehilangan kuasa pemerintahan, tekanan ISA dan krisis kepemimpinan, akhirnya PAS telah mengasaskan kepemimpinan ulamak pada Oktober 1982. Tuan Haji Yusof Rawa telah diangkat untuk memimpin PAS bagi menggantikan Datuk Mohd Asri yang meletakkan jawatan. Permulaan era kepemimpinan ulamak memperlihatkan PAS kembali kepada asas perjuangannya untuk mendaulatkan Islam dan memberikan penekanan terhadap kwajipan tersebut. Gerakan dakwah PAS berkembang dengan lebih tersusun melalui pendekatan haraki dan dalam masa yang sama PAS terus membina jambatan dakwah dengan non-Muslim sehingga terbentuk Majlis Perundingan Cina (CCC). Di sudut yang lain, pendekatan PAS telah disambut oleh kerajaan dengan melaksanakan juzuk tertentu daripada Islam seperti Dasar Penerapan Nilai-nilai Islam, Dasar Bersih, Cekap dan Amanah serta penubuhan Bank Islam, Universiti Islam Antarabangsa dan lain-lain.


Paling mencabar pada era kepemimpinan ulamak ialah beberapa siri penyalahgunaan ISA yang berlaku pada 1984, 1987 dan 1989, ketimbang dengan desakan PAS untuk diadakan Debat Terbuka PAS-Umno pada 1984. Dalam kemelut ini, tercetus pula tragedi Memali pada November 1985 yang mengorbankan 14 orang ahli PAS. Tetapi, pada 1987, Umno pula menghadapi krisis kepemimpinan sehingga parti tersebut diharamkan. Yang Dipertua Agung PAS, Ustaz Fadzil Mohd Noor memanfaatkan kesempatan ini dengan mewujudkan kerjasama politik dengan serpihan Umno, Semangat 46 yang membolehkan PAS berkuasa semula di Kelantan. Ketua Dewan Ulamak PAS (kemudian Mursyidul Am PAS), Tuan Guru Dato’ Nik Abdul Aziz Nik Mat diberikan kepercayaan untuk memimpin kerajaan Kelantan semenjak 1990. Dengan dasar ’Membangun Bersama Islam’, PAS berjaya melaksanakan tanggungjawabnya untuk menegakkan hukum Allah yang berada dalam bidang kuasana.


Pada 1996, PAS mula berkrisis dengan Parti Melayu Semangat 46 (PMS46) yang menyebabkan Angkatan Perpaduan Ummah (APU) yang dibentuk pada 1989 berpecah. Dua tahun kemudian, Umno sekali lagi menghadapi perpecahan ekoran pemecatan Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim yang menyebabkan wujudnya gerakan Reformasi. PAS telah memimpin Majlis Gerakan Keadilan Rakyat Malaysia (GERAK) bagi menuntut keadilan kepada rakyat, kemudian menubuhkan Barisan Alternatif (BA) pada 1999. Melalui BA, PAS berjaya merampas semula Terengganu. Timbalan Presiden PAS, Datuk Seri Tuan Guru Haji Abdul Hadi Awang diamanahkan untuk mengetuai kerajaan Terengganu sehingga 2004. Selepas pencapaian lemah PAS pada 2004 kerana momentum Perdana Menteri baru, PAS bangkit semula pada 2008 dengan mengetuai tiga kerajaan negeri dan turut serta dalam kerajaan di Selangor. Kini, PAS dilihat sebagai pencabar utama Umno dalam menguasai politik orang Melayu Islam.


Sepanjang tempoh 1951-2008 ini, PAS telah dipimpin oleh tujuh orang Yang Dipertua Agung/Presiden iaitu Tuan Guru Haji Ahmad Fuad Hassan (1951-1953), Dr Haji Abbas Alias (1953-1956), Profesor Dr Burhanuddin al-Helmy (1956-1969), Datuk Mohd Asri Muda (1969-1982), Tuan Haji Yusof Rawa (1982-1988), Dato’ Fadzil Mohd Noor (1988-2002) dan Datuk Seri Tuan Guru Haji Abdul Hadi Awang (2002 hingga sekarang). Para pengkaji yang menganalisis perkembangan PAS ini mengatakan PAS telah mengalami empat jenis kepemimpinan iaitu kepemimpinan ulamak tradisi (1951-1956), kepemimpinan nasionalis kiri (1956-1969), kepemimpinan nasionalis kanan (1969-1982) dan kepemimpinan ulamak haraki (1982-sekarang)3. Dalam pada itu juga, mereka mengatakan PAS telah melalui empat tahap perkembangan iaitu tahap kemunculan (1951-1959), tahap kebangkitan (1959-1973), tahap kemuncak (1973-1977), tahap kejatuhan (1977-1990) dan tahap kebangkitan semula (1990-sekarang)4. Dari sudut pembinaan ideologi perjuangan PAS, dikatakan berlaku tiga fasa iaitu fasa penubuhan dan pembentukan ideologi (1951-1958), fasa pencernaan ideologi (1958-1982) dan fasa pengukuhan idelogi (1982-1995)5.



1 Burhanuddin al-Helmy (1957), Panduan Jiwa Pergerakan, dlm. Suara Islam, Thn. 2, Bil. 1, Disember.
2 Burhanuddin al-Helmy (1960), Sambutan Kemerdekaan Kali Ketiga, Utusan Melayu, 31 Ogos.
3 Mohd Fadli Ghani (2003), Dewan Pemuda PAS: Suatu Kajian Terhadap Tahap-tahap Perkembangan Organisasi
Dalam Era Bertindak, 1975-2003, Tesis Sarjana Sastera, Pusat Pengajian Sejarah, Politik dan Strategi UKM, h. 27.
4 Wan Abdul Rahman Latif (1992), Parti-parti Politik di Malaysia: Asas Perjuangan dan Penerimaan Masyarakat,
dlm. Dunia Islam, Feb., h. 35.
5 Zambry Abd Kadir (1995), Religion and Politics: The Search for Political Legitimacy of The Pan-Islamic Party of
Malaysia, Tesis PhD, Temple University, h. 25-28.



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Dikomen oleh izahar al-banjari , June 11, 2009
bolehkah pihak tuan menyiarkan resolusi pertama muktamar parti PAS yang diadakan di Sekolah Agama Tahzib, Titi Serong, Parit Buntar, Perak yang disertai oleh Allahyarham Dato Asri Muda.
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Dikomen oleh Pegawai Penerangan PAS Perak , June 11, 2009
Berkenaan dgn resolusi tersebut, InsyaAllah akan cuba diusahakan.
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Dikomen oleh saudagar lempoyang , June 19, 2009
Asalam para pembaca saya nak kongsi pandangan mengenai mukatamar pas tempoh hari saya agak terkejut kerana mukatamar pas tak ubah seperti perhimpunan umno lagaknya saya tidak menyokong mana2 parti kerana parti yang ada adalah berasaskan demokerasi yang telah ditingalkan olih inggeris yang penoh dgn umpat/mengumpat/jatuh menjatuh yang penting perlu menang walau satu undi dgn apa cara sekali pun.Setelah saya hayati dlm pas hanya mahu kuasa baru islam tertegak wahal hukum sunat/makruh/haram belum ditegakkan para ahli jemaahnya masih melakukan benda2 yang makruh,apa yang saya faham islam akan bangkit ditangan orang yang bertakwa bukan parti politik mencari cinta tuhan yang segalanya tuhan akan campur tangan ini yang ulamak lepas pandang fikir2kanlah wassalam
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Dikomen oleh saudagar lempoyang , September 25, 2009
asalam selamt ari raya maaf zahir batin saya ingin berkongsi pada tuan2 sesiapa yang nak menjadi pemimpin seluruh umat d akhir zaman adalah yang bertakwa bukan berpati politik ini bermakna islam akan gemilang di tangan ulamak yang berpolitik.Apa yang saya ingin utarakan ialah kalau ulamak yang di pimpin olih tuhan mereka akan mengamalkan sunnah nabi sepatutnya tok2 guru agama mengamalkan poligami terutama tuan guru nik aziz mesti mengamalkan poligami kerana itu tuntut oilh agama wassalam
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Dikomen oleh kesal , September 20, 2010
kpda saudagar lempoyang...tuntut ilmu n hadam btl2 baru ckp..bdk form 3 baca pun nak tgelak...tlalu sempit pmikirn ...buka al-quran cari ayt pasal poligami...lihat saranan n amaran...
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Dikomen oleh jeneral Muda , January 07, 2011
saya amat tertarik dengan matlamat asal penubuhan Pas...perjuangan untuk membina satu bangsa yang memegang kepada ajaran islam amat menarik.Namun begitu jika dilihat kepada situasi pada hari ini saya dapati bahawa pemimpin pas hanya menumpukan perjuangan untuk memperolehi kuasa walaupun agama islam dipermainkan oleh bukan islam sehinggakan terjemahan ayat al-quran yang disampaikan oleh orang pkr (india) yang merapu-rapu pun di iakan oleh mereka yang mendengarnya,ini amat mengecewakan ...banyak lagi yang perlu diterapkan oleh pemimpin pas kepada ahli-ahlinya,saya mengambil contoh: pada pru ke 12 lalu,seorang yang memang ahli pas,sangup mengambil wang dari umno sebagai upah untuk memasang banner,bendera dan ini menunjukkan seolah-olah dia tiada maruah sedangkan selama ini mengtakan mcm2 benda buruk terhadap umno demi duit semuanya dilupakan.dan terakhir pastikan ahli pas mengamalkan ajaran islam sebenarnya bagi mecerminkan perjuangan parti janganlah mengaku pas tetapi judi jadi mainan harian.smilies/grin.gifsmilies/cheesy.gif
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Dikomen oleh ahmad sukri , August 08, 2012
sesungguhnya perjuanggan ulamak terdahulu untuk membentuk negara islam amat bersungguh-sungguh , tetapi terdapat segeligtir manusia yang bencikan dasar ini, dengan ini ,bersatu lah umat islam untuk menlumpuhkan segelintir manusia ini kita buktikan pada pilihanraya umum ke 13 ini terriskan berjuang , kata ulamak besar dunia yusuf al-qurdawi peminpin yang kejam wajib dijatuh. jadi ayuh umat islam peduli kan propaganda,pedulikan BR1M, pedulikan utusan malaysia , nyahkan dari permikiran kita tengtang fitnah dan tomahan segelintir manusia ini.
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Dikomen oleh pembenci fitnah , October 17, 2012
elak fitnah..elak menjadi ekstrimis..ajak dengan cara yang baik..saya dlu terpaksa mengenali pas dari penyokong2 pas yang ekstrimis, yg kutuk sana sini, maki hamun sana sini..itu bukan caranya, saya sekarang dah yakin yang pas bawa satu perjuangan yang baik, tu pun lepas saya pulun untuk bukak mata sendiri..klau saya hanya fikir dari segi kebanyakan penyokong2nya yang telah saya jumpa, jangan harap saya nak sertai..jadi lah penyokong yang professional..yang pandai berkata2 benar, pandai menyebarkan kebaikan dengan cara baik..baru harum nama PAS..
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Dikomen oleh secret , November 27, 2012
cam pa gewsmilies/tongue.gif
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